Monitoring and management of ILD progression in pSS-ILD
Regular monitoring for progression of primary Sjögren’s syndrome-associated intersitial lung disease (pSS-ILD) can inform appropriate treatment decisions1
MONITORING FOR PROGRESSION OF PSS-ILD USING PFTS IS RECOMMENDED EVERY 3–6 MONTHS IN THE FIRST 1–2 YEARS1
Increase extent of fibrosis on HRCT
Worsening respiratory symptoms
Declining lung function
Older age at disease onset has been shown to be associated with ILD progression in patients with pSS-ILD (p=0.015)8,9*
Elevated ESR at baseline is significantly associated with ILD progression in patients with pSS-ILD (p=0.030)8*
shortness of breath on exercise (NHYA II) or PFTs restricted to FVC between 60–80% predicted or DLCO between 40%–70% predicted
shortness of breath at rest (NHYA III, IV) or PFTs with FVC <60% predicted or DLCO <40% predicted
PROGRESSION AND SEVERITY OF ILD ARE THE MAIN FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN MAKING TREATMENT DECISIONS FOR pSS-ILD1
Critical review of HRCT should be conducted to determine the primary pattern in patients with pSS-ILD who fail to respond to first-line treatment or deteriorates and different treatment options should be considered.1
HOW COULD A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM IMPROVE THE MANAGEMENT OF pSS-ILD?
Multidisciplinary management incorporating rheumatologists and respiratory specialists has a vital role in optimizing the care of patients with pSS-ILD1,11
What other management approaches should you consider?
* Progression of ILD is defined by decreases of ≥10% in FVC and/or ≥15% in DLCO.
CTD-ILD, connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease; DLCO, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; FVC, forced vital capacity; HRCT, high-resolution computed tomography; ILD, interstitial lung disease; NSIP, non-specific interstitial pneumonia; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PFT, pulmonary function test; pSS, primary Sjögren’s syndrome; pSS-ILD, primary Sjögren’s syndrome-associated interstitial lung disease; UIP, usual interstitial pneumonia.
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- Olson AL, Hartmann N, Padmaja P, et al. Estimation of the Prevalence of Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Diseases: Systematic Literature Review and Data from a Physician Survey. Adv Ther. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01578-6.
- Zamora-Legoff JA, Krause ML, Crowson CS, et al. Progressive decline of lung function in rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017;69(3):542–549.
- Flaherty KR, Brown KK, Wells AU, et al. Design of the PF-ILD trial: a doubleblind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial of nintedanib in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2017;4(1):e000212. doi: 10.1136/bmjresp-2017-000212.
- Cottin V, Hirani NA, Hotchkin DL, et al. Presentation, diagnosis and clinical course of the spectrum of progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases. Eur Respir Rev. 2018;27(150):180076. doi: 10.1183/16000617.0076-2018.
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- Zhang T, Yuan F, Xu L, Sun W, Liu L, Xue J. Characteristics of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome associated interstitial lung disease and relevant features of disease progression. Clin Rheumatol. 2020;39(5):1561–1568.
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- Manfredi A, Sebastiani M, Cerri S, et al. Prevalence and characterization of non-sicca onset primary Sjögren syndrome with interstitial lung involvement. Clin Rheumatol. 2017;36(6):1261–1268.
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- Kreuter M, Bendstrup E, Russell A, et al. Palliative care in interstitial lung disease: living well. Lancet Respir Med. 2017;5(12):968-980.
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- Sgalla G, Cerri S, Ferrari R, et al. Mindfulness-based stress reduction in patients with interstitial lung diseases: a pilot, single-centre observational study on safety and efficacy. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2015;2(1):e000065.
- Wijsenbeek M, Cottin V. Spectrum of Fibrotic Lung Diseases. N Engl J Med. 2020;383:958–968.